Volume 28, Issue 1
Assessing Leak Paths in the Cement Sheath of a Cased Borehole by Analysis of Monopole Wavefield Modes

Hua Wang, Michael FehlerAimé Fournier

Commun. Comput. Phys., 28 (2020), pp. 424-441.

Published online: 2020-05

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  • Abstract

Evaluation of possible leakage pathways of CO2 injected into geological formations for storage is essential for successful Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). A channel in the borehole cement, which secures the borehole casing to the formation, may allow CO2 to escape. Risk assessment and remediation decisions about the presence of such channels depend on channel parameters: radial position $r$ from the center of the borehole; channel thickness $d$; azimuthal position $φ$ of the channel; and azimuthal extent $θ$ of the channel. Current state-of-the-art cement-bond logging technology, which uses only the first arrival at a centralized borehole receiver, can diagnose limited details about CO2 leak channels. To accurately characterize the possible leak paths in the cement, we use a 3-dimensional finite-difference method to investigate the use of the abundant data collected by a modernized monopole sonic tool that contains an array of azimuthally distributed receivers. We also investigate how to improve the tool design to acquire even more useful information. For cases where borehole fluid is either water or supercritical CO2, we investigate various receiver geometries, multimodal analyses of multi-frequency data to discover the type of logging tool that provides the best information for CCS management. We find that an appropriate choice of wave modes, source frequencies, source polarities, and receiver locations and offsets provides sensitivity to $d$, $φ$, $θ$. The amplitude of the first arrival from a monopole source is sensitive to $θ$. Amplitudes at receivers at different azimuths are sensitive to $φ$. The slow Stoneley mode (ST2) velocity is sensitive to $d$, but ST2 is not easy to pick when $θ$ and $d$ are small. Further improvement is necessary to provide comprehensive information about possible flow channels in casing cement.

  • Keywords

Greenhouse effect, CO$_2$ leak channel, cement bond evaluation, borehole acoustic logging, casing wave, Stoneley waves.

  • AMS Subject Headings

86A15

  • Copyright

COPYRIGHT: © Global Science Press

  • Email address

huawang@uestc.edu.cn (Hua Wang)

fehler@mit.edu (Michael Fehler)

aime@mit.edu (Aimé Fournier)

  • BibTex
  • RIS
  • TXT
@Article{CiCP-28-424, author = {Wang , Hua and Fehler , Michael and Fournier , Aimé}, title = {Assessing Leak Paths in the Cement Sheath of a Cased Borehole by Analysis of Monopole Wavefield Modes}, journal = {Communications in Computational Physics}, year = {2020}, volume = {28}, number = {1}, pages = {424--441}, abstract = {

Evaluation of possible leakage pathways of CO2 injected into geological formations for storage is essential for successful Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). A channel in the borehole cement, which secures the borehole casing to the formation, may allow CO2 to escape. Risk assessment and remediation decisions about the presence of such channels depend on channel parameters: radial position $r$ from the center of the borehole; channel thickness $d$; azimuthal position $φ$ of the channel; and azimuthal extent $θ$ of the channel. Current state-of-the-art cement-bond logging technology, which uses only the first arrival at a centralized borehole receiver, can diagnose limited details about CO2 leak channels. To accurately characterize the possible leak paths in the cement, we use a 3-dimensional finite-difference method to investigate the use of the abundant data collected by a modernized monopole sonic tool that contains an array of azimuthally distributed receivers. We also investigate how to improve the tool design to acquire even more useful information. For cases where borehole fluid is either water or supercritical CO2, we investigate various receiver geometries, multimodal analyses of multi-frequency data to discover the type of logging tool that provides the best information for CCS management. We find that an appropriate choice of wave modes, source frequencies, source polarities, and receiver locations and offsets provides sensitivity to $d$, $φ$, $θ$. The amplitude of the first arrival from a monopole source is sensitive to $θ$. Amplitudes at receivers at different azimuths are sensitive to $φ$. The slow Stoneley mode (ST2) velocity is sensitive to $d$, but ST2 is not easy to pick when $θ$ and $d$ are small. Further improvement is necessary to provide comprehensive information about possible flow channels in casing cement.

}, issn = {1991-7120}, doi = {https://doi.org/10.4208/cicp.OA-2018-0102}, url = {http://global-sci.org/intro/article_detail/cicp/16846.html} }
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing Leak Paths in the Cement Sheath of a Cased Borehole by Analysis of Monopole Wavefield Modes AU - Wang , Hua AU - Fehler , Michael AU - Fournier , Aimé JO - Communications in Computational Physics VL - 1 SP - 424 EP - 441 PY - 2020 DA - 2020/05 SN - 28 DO - http://doi.org/10.4208/cicp.OA-2018-0102 UR - https://global-sci.org/intro/article_detail/cicp/16846.html KW - Greenhouse effect, CO$_2$ leak channel, cement bond evaluation, borehole acoustic logging, casing wave, Stoneley waves. AB -

Evaluation of possible leakage pathways of CO2 injected into geological formations for storage is essential for successful Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). A channel in the borehole cement, which secures the borehole casing to the formation, may allow CO2 to escape. Risk assessment and remediation decisions about the presence of such channels depend on channel parameters: radial position $r$ from the center of the borehole; channel thickness $d$; azimuthal position $φ$ of the channel; and azimuthal extent $θ$ of the channel. Current state-of-the-art cement-bond logging technology, which uses only the first arrival at a centralized borehole receiver, can diagnose limited details about CO2 leak channels. To accurately characterize the possible leak paths in the cement, we use a 3-dimensional finite-difference method to investigate the use of the abundant data collected by a modernized monopole sonic tool that contains an array of azimuthally distributed receivers. We also investigate how to improve the tool design to acquire even more useful information. For cases where borehole fluid is either water or supercritical CO2, we investigate various receiver geometries, multimodal analyses of multi-frequency data to discover the type of logging tool that provides the best information for CCS management. We find that an appropriate choice of wave modes, source frequencies, source polarities, and receiver locations and offsets provides sensitivity to $d$, $φ$, $θ$. The amplitude of the first arrival from a monopole source is sensitive to $θ$. Amplitudes at receivers at different azimuths are sensitive to $φ$. The slow Stoneley mode (ST2) velocity is sensitive to $d$, but ST2 is not easy to pick when $θ$ and $d$ are small. Further improvement is necessary to provide comprehensive information about possible flow channels in casing cement.

Hua Wang, Michael Fehler & Aimé Fournier. (2020). Assessing Leak Paths in the Cement Sheath of a Cased Borehole by Analysis of Monopole Wavefield Modes. Communications in Computational Physics. 28 (1). 424-441. doi:10.4208/cicp.OA-2018-0102
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